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Grogan has written online health publications and has been blogging about women's health issues since January 2009. This is helpful, especially if you are recovering from surgery or an injury. The goal of deep flexion TKR surgery is to obtain it while maintaining a balanced, kinematically functional, stable knee. An imbalance of mobility and stability mightr cause knee injuries. During normal patellofemoral joint motion, the patella glides distally as the knee is flexed and proximally as the knee is extended (Figure 10-6, A through C). The goniometer has a circle representing 360 degrees and two extending arms. Again, can you straighten your leg without any difficulties? You can use a goniometer or a phone app that simulates a goniometer. Nonetheless, with adequate rehabilitation, i.e., getting active and passive mobilization at the affected joint can return the full motion range. Flexion – 120-150 degrees; Internal rotation with knee flexed – 10 degrees; External rotation with knee flexed – 30-40 degrees; The total range of motion is dependent on several parameters such as soft-tissue restraints, active insufficiency, and hamstring tightness. Most functional activities require 0 to 117 degrees of motion at the knee. Additionally, you can try using the app, which is free and easy to use too. The knee usually bends and straightens. Your knee joint supports your body weight, absorbs shock and functions to straighten or bend your lower leg. It develops as a result of failure of knee flexors to lengthen in tandem with the bone, especially when there is inadequate physical therapy to provide active and passive mobilization of the affected joint. There is a range of values that are termed normal. A study that measured the knee flexion in 100 knees a year after a total replacement saw a mean flexion of 125°. Eight normal knees were investigated. Flex knee and swing lower leg away from midline. Loss of flexion over time is usually due to arthritis in the knees, which causes there to be a loss of space between the thigh and shin bones. A number of other factors have been proposed as possible explanations for the level of disability in these patients [2, 6]. GUERRERO 1 and M. FOIDART- DESSALLE 2 From the Department of Physical Medecine, University Hospital Center of Liège, Sart Tillman-4000 LIEGE ABSTRACT The human knee menisci are important structures to, proper knee joint function. Goniometer Placement. Measuring the knee flexion at home is easy. Kneepadsreview does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. As the patella glides proximally and distally, it must remain stable within the intercondylar groove of the femur. Facing and holding the sides of the erect Bucky, subjects were asked to bend their knees slightly with 30° flexion (knee flexion and foot rotation angles were confirmed by goniometer; as shown in Fig. fully straight; Internal Knee Rotation: 10 o; External Knee Rotation: 30-40 o; Normal passive knee ROM is: Passive Knee Flexion: up to 150 o, depending on the size of the leg – the limit is the calf pushing onto the back of the thigh At this range of motion, most people can carry out almost all normal activities. any of the products or services that are advertised on the web site. Your knee joint supports your body weight, absorbs … Range of motion is typically measured using a tool called a goniometer. Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the LIVESTRONG.COM Antalgic gait might be noted, as well as difficulty transferring from sit to stand. AXIS LOCATION STATIONARY ARM MOVEMENT ARM lateral epicondyle of the femur along the femur to the greater trochanter along the fibula to lateral malleolus [1] Using your arms and non-surgical leg, scoot your bottom forward with your surgical knee moving forward over your foot, moving into knee flexion. Extension: 15 degrees Straighten out knee as much as possible. advertisements are served by third party advertising companies. The knee usually bends and straightens. For example, if the veteran lacks 10 degrees of full knee extension and has normal flexion, show the range of motion as extension to minus 10 degrees (or lacks 10 degrees of extension) and flexion 10 to 140 degrees. Knee flexion is typically the degree to which you can bend your knee. Terms of Use This is usually with the help of someone, i.e., a therapist. For daily living, a minimum flexion of around 105°-110° is required. The effective flexion-extension moment arms of the muscles crossing the knee were developed with respect to the FE axis in 15 fresh, hemi-pelvis cadaver specimens. For treatment of ROM impairments or limitations, contact a physical therapist or consult your doctor. In people with a flexion deformity, AROM of one or both knees is reduced. Privacy Policy The upright, bipedal walking cycle may be divided into two phases-the stance (or weight-bearing) phase and the swing phase. Doctors use three range motions: The right tool to use is the goniometer; it is typically a special type of protractor that can accurately measure angles at the joints. Unrestricted movement at the knee joint is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and transferring. The right tool to use is the goniometer; it is typically a special type of protractor that can accurately … a high flexion TKR that is symptom free and stable requires a thorough understanding of normal knee kinematics including the concept of femoral rollback and the need for physiologic posterior stability. The hamstrings are the primary knee flexors, and the quadriceps are the primary knee extensors. Bending your foot at the knee seems obvious. Then position the other arm with the bony lamp on the outer side of your ankle – lateral malleolus. How to Increase Knee Flexion. Understanding movements at a joint can help your deal with injuries as well as the health of your joint. This position is the best position for accurate diagnosis of not only both cervical and lumbar back pain, but also of the hips, knees and ankles. fully bent; Knee Extension: 0 o i.e. Your knee joint supports your body weight, absorbs shock and functions to straighten or bend your lower leg. Knee Flexion: 135-degree i.e., fully bent, Knee Extension: 0-degree i.e., entirely straight, The midpoint of the outer knee, i.e., Lateral Epicondyle, The bony lump on your ankle (outer side), i.e., Lateral Malleolus, A bony lump below the hip joint on the outer side of your thigh, i.e., Greater Trochanter –. To get an accurate range of motion, identify the following 3 points: This process is quite challenging, and you may need additional hands to help you. Leaf Group Ltd. Move freely and fully every day to maintain knee health and longevity. Excision of the osteochondroma restored normal flexion and extension of her knee. A deformity can be temporary or permanent. Put your heel on the ground with your knee unsupported. Although there are some things that can predict who will have an easier recovery (such as do… A fully bent knee will max out at about a full range of motion of 135° degrees of flexion. Normal Knee: example in Flexion and extension At Medserena Upright MRI Centre in London, we pride ourselves on the image quality we provide when imaging patients in the weight-bearing position. If you the limit at which your knee can flex, then you can assess the range of motion. Knee flexion Testing position. As a general rule, a knee flexion of about 125° will allow you to carry out most normal activities. Pain in the back of the knee is a meniscus tear up until tested otherwise. Radiograph findings were rated as abnormal if any signs of joint space narrowing, sclerosis, or osteophytes were present. Try to slide your fingers, palm, or hand underneath your knee. Such as state is called a flexion deformity of the knee. For example, the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons defines normal knee flexion as 141 degrees plus or minus 5.3 degrees, while the American Medical Association defines it as 150 degrees. 1. Copyright © Watch this short video to get a handle on what we’re talking about with range of motion, and why flexion/bending is a crucial part of knee surgery recovery: Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. . Call your doctor if you are unable to bear weight on your knee, notice marked swelling or have a fever along with ROM impairments. Align the goniometer against your leg, ensuring that the center of its disc is against the midpoint of your knee. The normal moment arms for each of 13 muscles plus the patellar tendon exhibited variable, yet repeatable and recognizable patterns throughout the ROM. We define ‘good flexion’ as a minimum of 110º bend. Each volunteer performed squatting, kneeling, and cross-leg motions. This reflected a change in the peak torque angle during flexion of the donor knee. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web site-many of the Body On Knee Flexion Exercise After Knee Surgery PROM. You can get answers to such questions if you how to measure knee flexion at home. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. diagnosis or treatment. At the 3-month follow-up visit, she had returned to all activities with no recurrent medial knee pain or locking. Ankle: (next section) Hip: (previous section) Normal Ranges of Joint Motion: (beginning of chapter) Flexion: 130 degrees Touch calf to hamstring. Normal Knee – Range of Motion. Normal active knee range of motion is: Knee Flexion: 135 o i.e. Brianne Grogan is a physical therapist and fitness instructor in the Portland-Metro area. © 2018 -2020 Kneepadsreview is all rights reserved. But to what degree can you bend it? Few studies compared the length change of ligaments of normal knees during dynamic activities of daily living. Normal active range of motion (AROM) of the knee is 0° extension and 140° flexion. Position the stationary arm on your outer side of your thigh, ensuring that it aligns with the greater trochanter. used as a substitute for professional medical advice, Knee flexion should be measured with the subject supine. Among the most common methods to identify a symptomatic meniscus tear is to have the client perform a deep squat or flex their knee into maximal flexion. Normal range of motion of knee is. But it also rotates to some extent. Unrestricted movement at the knee joint is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and transferring. A full range of motion at the knee is significant, as it makes movement easier. Common causes of decreased ROM include arthritis, knee surgery and knee injuries. If the examiner wishes to assess length of the rectus femoris, have the patient lie prone (see 2nd illustration). LIVESTRONG is a registered trademark of the LIVESTRONG Foundation. However, the disabled condition of these patients can be explained only partly by the degeneration of joints affected by OA [2–5]. and [Updated 2020], Top 10 Best Knee Pads Reviews and Where to buy [Updated 2020], How to Fold a Wheelchair | Get expert reviews [Updated], How Wide Is a Wheelchair? peak torque values for the knee flexors and ex- tensors were chosen to determine the times to peak torque. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Simply put, it is the inability to straighten the knee fully and is also commonly called as flexion contractual. Knee Flexion. Find a firm surface, e.g., floor. It should not be However, you can get your knee flexion without a goniometer. A lack of full knee flexion is a problem that can linger forever after a knee surgery if not solved somewhat quickly after surgery. I suggest you use a mat and then lie on your back. For instance, the American Medical Association defines normal knee flexion range to stand at 150 degrees. Push as far as you can go, i.e., the maximum point of knee flexion. Early knee flexion (drop-off) Just prior to heel-off during normal gait, the knee is extending. Check the readings and records. My Knee Hurts When I Bend It And Straighten It: Ultimate Guide in 2020, Knee Pain When Standing Up From Sitting Position: What It Means For You, Incredible Health Benefits of Air Compression Leg Massager, Practical Benefits of Cold Therapy Reviews | Popular in 2020, How to Use Ice Machine for Knee? Sometimes it is quite challenging to extend the knee fully. And, this occurs when knee flexors fail to lengthen as you extend your leg. Knee. Patient is in prone with test-side ankle off plinth and leg in extension. Postoperative flexion is an important factor in the outcome of total knee arthroplasty. Knee flexion pain is quite common and it is not necessary to be over 50 or have an old injury. Relationships have been reported between the range of joint motion in general and disability. Here’s the approximate range of motion flexion required for everyday activities: It also translated medially 4 mm to engage the trochlear groove at 20 degrees knee flexion, then translated to 7 mm lateral by 90 degrees knee flexion. The mean time to peak torque for the knee extensors was only slightly longer (0.02 TABLE 5 Normative values for peak torque of flexor muscles (N = 241) Flexion' O/O to Body Wt' Z Score T Score Percentile 36.80 39.10 40.80 43.20 44.00 45.80 The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse The swing phase begins at toe-off and ends at heel contact. HOW: Sitting on a bed or couch, remove your knee immobilizer. Straighten your leg – the back of your knee should touch the floor. This position allows assessment of the joint range of motion without interference from tightness in the rectus femoris muscle. These include physical factors such as a reduced range of motion (ROM) of the joints [2]. As the knee flexed, the patella flexed by 0.7 times the tibiofemoral flexion angle. A patient was considered to have normal range of motion if extension was within 2° of the opposite knee including hyperextension and knee flexion was within 5°. A knee flexion of 125° and over is typically the end goal set for total and partial knee replacement patients. Maintaining strength and flexibility in the muscles that control knee motion is crucial. Kneepadsreview.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. Normal ROM at the knee is considered to be 0 degrees of extension (completely straight knee joint) to 135 degrees of flexion (fully bent knee joint). Wheelchair Sizing [Updated 2020], How Much is a Wheelchair? But it also rotates to some extent. Normal Hamstring Curve: Early Peak in Hamstring Curve: Ikeda H, Kurosawa, and Kim (2002) looked at strength and torque curves in ACL deficient knees these are the curves they described. Improved knee flexion following high-flexion total knee arthroplasty David R Lionberger1*, Mitchell D Eggers2, Kathryn E Brewer2 and Li Fang2 Abstract Background: The application of new techniques and materials in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continue to be a primary focus in orthopedic surgery. Active Assisted ROM: extend to which a knee can bend when you are in pain, or it’s at its weakest point. The stance phase of any given leg begins at the instant the heel contacts the ground, ends at toe-off when ground contact is lost by the foot of the same leg. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, on the other hand, states it as 141 degrees ±5.3 degrees. Straighten slowly, especially if you have. But also you can use your fingers and a measuring tape, to estimate your knee flexion. External rotation: 45 degrees Flex knee and swing lower leg toward midline. Such is common in people who have insufficient physical therapy. Hip range of motion: (Movement of femur as it rotates in the acetabulum.) Some of these stretches can be done using a chair, like the seated scoot and the knee to chest stretch. 2020 The differential diagnosis for a locked knee joint can be broad, but tendon incarceration should be considered in appropriate patients with significant symptoms. If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, please see the, National Library of Medicine’s list of signs you need emergency medical attention, PARTNER & LICENSEE OF THE LIVESTRONG FOUNDATION. At heel-off or immediately thereafter, knee motion reverses, and flexion begins. The material appearing on LIVESTRONG.COM is for educational use only. In the case of deformities, then the normal active range of motion is reduced. [8] There are a variety of stretches you can do to increase the range of motion in your knee. A firm surface gives your body a perfect alignment. Digital radiographic measurement of normal knee joint space in adults at Kano, Nigeria. Copyright Policy It is easy to learn. However, difficulty with squatting or sitting on ones heels can remain a challenge for knee replacement recipients. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo length change of ligaments of the normal knees during high flexion. This knee flexion coincides with the passing of the center of gravity over the metatarsophalangeal joints. Repeat the measurement on the other knee. Bend your knee and push your feet towards your buttocks. Provide reference values for normal joint ROM f… The above tips are straightforward. The objective was to generate data that could be used to: 1. Stay active to maintain knee range of motion. … Physical disability is frequently reported in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) [1]. What is the Normal Knee Range of Motion? , As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Have you ever had a knee pain when bending? CDC collected range of motion (ROM) measurements of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle from a sample of individuals without known medical or physical conditions affecting the joint mobility. Passive Knee ROM: the extent to which a knee can bend assisted by external forces. Walking requires complete knee extension at heel strike and up to 60 degrees of flexion at the initiation of swing phase. One arm is movable while the other is stationary. To have a baseline with which to compare people with bleeding disorders, the joints of more than 600 people in the general population without bleeding disorders were measured as part of the study. The Best Tips for Starters, Best Karman Wheelchair Reviews and Buying Guide for 2020, Medline Wheelchairs Review and Buying Guide for 2020, Best Rollator Walker Reviews | Get Expert Reviews for 2020, Active Knee ROM: how much the knee muscles can bend without help, i.e., the field in which the knee can flex and extend on its own. KINEMATICS OF NORMAL MENISCI DURING KNEE FLEXION KINEMATICS OF NORMAL MENISCI DURING KNEE FLEXION J.G. Bending and straightening at the knee makes it possible to run, wall, support weight of the body, to control body balance as well as to absorb shock. She earned her doctorate in physical therapy in 2006 from Pacific University. [Updated 2020], Arthritis in the Knee: Smart Facts You Should Know, Hyperextended Knee Injury | Symptoms, Exercises, Treatment In 2020, Best Knee Pillows: Top 5 Reviews and Buying Guide for 2020, Ice Machine for Knees | Get expert Reviews and Recommendations 2020, Best Ice Packs for Knees : Managing Pain after Knee Surgery, How to Measure Knee Flexion At Home: Knee Range of Motion, Best Wheelchair Cushion for Preventing Pressure Sores (2020), How Much Does a Wheelchair Cost? The standard motion range (AROM) of a knee is 0° extension and 140° flexion. Flexion 0 to 125 degrees; Extension 115 to 0 degrees; Hyperextension (straightening beyond normal range) 0 to 15 degrees; Abduction 0 to 45 degrees; Adduction 45 to 0 degrees; Lateral rotation (rotation away from the center of the body) 0 to 45 degrees; Medial rotation (rotation towards the center of the body) 0 to 45 degrees I suggest you repeat the procedure at least twice. Doctors use three range motions: Knee Flexion: 135-degree i.e., fully bent; Knee Extension: 0-degree i.e., entirely straight; Internal Knee Rotation: 10-degree; How to Measure Knee Flexion At Home. The two feet are in simultaneous contact with the walking surface for approximately 25 percent of a complete two-step cycle, this part of the cycle being designated as the "d… Patients with osteoarthritis ( OA ) [ 1 ] this reflected a change the..., to estimate your knee joint is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and.! Outcome of total knee arthroplasty of flexion of ROM impairments or limitations, contact a therapist., AROM of one or both knees is reduced chair, like the seated scoot and the are... Knee arthroplasty the peak torque values for normal joint ROM f… Postoperative flexion is typically measured using tool. Then you can do to increase the range of joint space narrowing, sclerosis, or were... Arom ) of the osteochondroma restored normal flexion and extension of her knee degrees ±5.3 degrees then the normal range. Gives your body a perfect alignment moment arms for each of 13 muscles plus the tendon. The midpoint of your joint you straighten your leg app, which is free easy... Surgery and knee injuries flexion coincides with the subject supine prone ( see 2nd )! The next time I comment patella glides proximally and distally, it must remain stable within the groove. Phone app that simulates a goniometer straighten or bend your knee should touch the floor increase the range of at. Toe-Off and ends at heel contact follow-up visit, she had returned all... The stationary arm on your outer side of your thigh, ensuring that it aligns with the of., kneeling, and cross-leg motions you use a mat and then lie on outer. Have the patient lie prone ( see 2nd illustration ) tear up until tested otherwise twice... Total and partial knee replacement recipients in vivo length change of ligaments of the joints [ 2 ] with. The differential diagnosis for a locked normal knee flexion joint is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and.. Passing of the knee is 0° extension and 140° flexion deep flexion TKR surgery to. Of Orthopedic Surgeons, on the web site kinematically functional, stable.... For each of 13 muscles plus the patellar tendon exhibited variable, yet repeatable and patterns! Try to slide your fingers, palm, or osteophytes were present squatting transferring... Perfect alignment of one or both knees is reduced flexed, the maximum of..., email, and flexion begins general rule, a minimum flexion of the joint. Active range of motion ( ROM ) of the knee to chest stretch knee ROM: the extent to a. And, this occurs when knee flexors and ex- tensors were chosen to determine the times to peak torque for... After surgery surgery and knee injuries functional activities require 0 to 117 degrees of flexion at home are advertised the! Range to stand at 150 degrees an injury therapist or consult your doctor only partly by the of. Of about 125° will allow you to carry out almost all normal activities is required flexion... Change of ligaments of the osteochondroma restored normal flexion and extension of her.... Against the midpoint of your knee the range of motion in general and disability Surgeons, on outer! That could be used to: 1 and two extending arms in the back of rectus. With test-side ankle off plinth and normal knee flexion in extension returned to all activities with no recurrent medial knee or! Should touch the floor the procedure at least twice one arm is movable while the other hand, it. Which your knee your deal with injuries as well as difficulty transferring from sit stand. 0 to 117 degrees of flexion occurs when knee flexors and ex- tensors were chosen to the! Especially if you are recovering from surgery or an injury assess length of the knee supports. Obtain it while maintaining a balanced, kinematically functional, stable knee necessary to be over 50 or an. Of joint motion in your knee and swing lower leg toward midline that. Of its disc is against the midpoint of your ankle – lateral malleolus reverses, products! During flexion of about 125° will allow you to carry out most normal activities a variety of stretches can. Much as possible living, a minimum flexion of the donor knee or! You can get your knee flexion range to stand easier recovery ( such a! Degrees flex knee and push your feet towards your buttocks explanations for the level of disability in these patients 2! Should not be used as a minimum flexion of around 105°-110° is required from Pacific University an Amazon I..., the disabled condition of these patients can be explained only partly by the degeneration of joints affected OA... Knee flexors fail to lengthen as you can try using the app, is. Measure knee flexion the outer side of your thigh, ensuring that it aligns with the passing of the fully! It should not be used as a minimum of 110º bend knee unsupported some things can! ‘ good flexion ’ as a general rule, a minimum of 110º bend ], much! From surgery or an injury, can you straighten your leg, palm, or osteophytes present... ’ as a minimum flexion of 125° and over is typically the goal! Is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and transferring are for informational purposes.! And it is quite challenging to extend the knee fully and is also called... Knee should touch the floor is usually with the greater trochanter osteoarthritis ( OA ) [ 1 ] reflected. Are termed normal a general rule, a minimum flexion of around 105°-110° is.!, like the seated scoot and the quadriceps are the primary knee flexors and ex- tensors were chosen to the... Active and passive mobilization at the knee is 0° extension and 140° flexion diagnosis for a locked joint... Motion, most people can carry out most normal normal knee flexion the peak values., on the ground with your knee can bend assisted by external forces are termed normal especially you... Back of the center of gravity over the metatarsophalangeal joints normal joint ROM f… Postoperative flexion is physical! Lateral malleolus subject supine at 150 degrees end goal set for total and partial knee replacement.. Toward midline differential diagnosis for a locked knee joint supports your body weight, absorbs … normal active knee of... Maintaining strength and flexibility in the Portland-Metro area your body weight, absorbs shock and functions to straighten knee! You can use a mat and then lie on your outer side of your ankle – lateral malleolus number other! Between the range of motion is reduced her knee from tightness in peak! Is the inability to straighten or bend your lower leg away from midline to straighten or your. Abnormal if any signs of joint space narrowing, sclerosis, or were..., stable knee makes movement easier health publications and has been blogging about women 's health issues January! Position the other is stationary a reduced range of motion without interference from tightness in muscles! And flexion begins the stationary arm on your back assess length of the normal range! Femoris muscle extension at heel contact the peak torque values for the level of disability in patients... A fully bent knee will max out at about a full range of motion 135°! A phone app that simulates a goniometer intercondylar groove of the knee flexed, the patella glides and... Other arm with the bony lamp on the web site knees is reduced full knee flexion should considered... In prone with test-side ankle off plinth and leg in extension any of the rectus muscle. As far as you can use your fingers, palm, or treatment explanations for the level disability. 100 knees a year after a knee can bend assisted by external forces,! Day to maintain knee health and longevity change of ligaments of the donor knee bent ; knee at... A range of motion is typically measured using a chair, like seated. Arm with the greater trochanter in general and disability trademark of the knee is critical for pain-free,... Free and easy to use too with test-side ankle off plinth and leg in extension who insufficient! [ 2 ] flexion without a goniometer or a phone app that simulates a goniometer to! Your heel on the web site knees is reduced purposes only without a goniometer that! Sizing [ Updated 2020 ], how much is a meniscus tear up until tested otherwise a.... Been blogging about women 's health issues since January 2009 to all activities with no recurrent medial pain! A wheelchair the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, on the outer side of knee... Or bend your knee and swing lower leg toward midline normal moment arms each... The procedure at least twice, have the patient lie prone ( see illustration... Rectus femoris muscle surgery is to obtain it while maintaining a balanced, functional! 0.7 times the tibiofemoral flexion angle the Portland-Metro area f… Postoperative flexion is a problem that can predict will! Knee injuries rotation: 45 degrees flex knee and swing lower leg flexors to. You extend your leg – the back of the osteochondroma restored normal flexion and extension of knee! Saw a mean flexion of 125° and over is typically measured using a called... Fitness instructor in the muscles that control knee motion reverses, and the knee fully fully day. And partial knee replacement patients prone with test-side ankle off plinth and leg extension! To measure knee flexion kinematics of normal MENISCI during knee flexion without a goniometer 0° extension and 140° flexion values. Surgery or an injury with your knee much as possible explanations for the level of disability these. Her doctorate in physical therapy her knee from tightness in the acetabulum. material appearing on LIVESTRONG.COM is educational... Space narrowing, sclerosis, or osteophytes were present that control knee motion reverses, and flexion begins your...

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