For more details of the actual materials and services provided at each level, please refer to the IB language policy document. Government education policy in the UK has consistently featured prescriptive discourse about grammar (see Hudson Reference Hudson2016 for an overview). As such, teachers can be coerced into acting as mouthpieces for the UK government's conservative and prescriptive language ideologies. Reference Van Mensel, Vandenbrouke, Blackwood, García, Flores and Spotti2017), or even metalinguistic landscapes, which were placed on classroom walls, corridors, and outside school gates, or sent home to parents. It is also important to realize that every school is different. For instance, Jaworski (Reference Jaworski, Johnson and Ensslin2018:346) suggests that the media ‘ “pick up” certain issues, however small, and turn them into stories, moral panics and debates’ (see also Fowler Reference Fowler1991; Cameron Reference Cameron1995). This ensures that everyone in the country has the opportunity to … Language policy and planning decisions have a major impact on language vitality and, ultimately, on the rights of the individual. ‘ain't’), informal lexis (e.g. and the parents I guess (.) "languageSwitch": true Following Cameron (Reference Cameron1995) and Cushing (Reference Cushing2019), ‘grammar’ in schools was used as a metaphorical correlate for a ‘cluster of related political and moral terms: order, tradition, authority, hierarchy and rules’ (Cameron Reference Cameron1995:95), legitimising a causative relationship between ‘bad grammar’ and ‘bad behaviour’. There is currently no specific policy on languages in England. When this happens, it becomes a ‘macro/micro-level language policy-in-process’ (Amir & Musk Reference Amir and Musk2013:152), whereby policy arbiters can appropriate and enact macro-level policies in different ways. In the UK, NC policy is divided into primary (ages 4–11; Department for Education 2013b) and secondary (ages 11–16; Department for Education 2013a) and includes both general and subject specific policies. public schools, school curricula, and the language-related duties of provincial departments of education and school governing bodies. The process of language ‘policing’ forms part of a crime metaphor, of which there were sixty-one instances across twenty-two media articles, and seventy-six references across sixteen interviews. Currently the IB’s three working languages are English, French and Spanish. Wee Reference Wee2011), as well as identities and variation (e.g. The majority of UK schools follow the National Curriculum (NC), a prescribed programme of study first introduced in 1988 in order to standardise classroom content. Duchêne & Heller Reference Duchêne and Heller2012; Park & Wee Reference Park and Wee2012; Holborow Reference Holborow2015) and is aligned with the corporate world and its aims of capital growth. An overall picture of the data reveals a dominant prescriptive discourse, with the ubiquitous use of evaluative adjectives and adverbs such as ‘poor’, ‘incorrect’, and ‘[speak] properly’ used to describe nonstandardised language. Grammar in the curriculum for English: What next? The policing of nonstandardised L1 language in schools is an increasingly pervasive phenomenon that attracts significant media attention, coverage that informs much of the discussion in this article. I then critically examine a dataset that is threaded together with discourse about language policing. It continues to be widely criticised for its nationalistic ideologies, with monocultural and Anglocentric emphases on exclusively British literature and propagandist history (e.g. These language policies and practices are not inspired per se by a negative attitude towards the native language of immigrant minority children. Following conventions from Lakoff & Johnson (Reference Lakoff and Johnson1980), metaphors occur when one thing (a ‘target domain’) is understood in terms of another thing (a ‘source domain’) and can be represented using an x is y structure, with x being the target domain and y being the source domain. 9 National Language Policy Framework - 2003 1.3.9 The Constitution and related legislation clearly advocate the promotion of multilingualism in South Africa. Department for Education 2013a,b,c), a small corpus of UK newspaper articles about language policing in schools, and a set of interviews with sixteen primary school teachers. Eckert Reference Eckert2008) but has received limited attention in L1 educational language policy research, especially through a critical discursive approach. These included the opportunity for ex-military personnel to register for the ‘Troops to teachers’ scheme, a programme designed to fast-track ex-armed service members into teaching, and the availability for military organisations to sponsor and fund schools. Cajkler & Hislam Reference Cajkler and Hislam2002). The 2015 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSA) found that most people in Scotland (89%) think that learning a language other than English in school from the age of five is important. A useful avenue for future work would be for sociolinguists to work with teachers in order to be more critically engaged with language and offer solutions for change (see Alim Reference Alim, Hornberger and McKay2010), as would be ethnographic work in schools in order to trace the ‘social life’ of language policies and better understand the experiences of those who are part of them. Lippi-Green suggests that education is often the ‘heart’ of the process (Lippi-Green Reference Lippi-Green2012:68), where macro-level authoritative bodies (such as a government) first claim control over language, then move on to devaluing stigmatised forms and their speakers by holding up ‘conformers’ as positive examples and promising rewards to those who assimilate to the standard. Yandell Reference Yandell2017) and the promotion of ‘core factual knowledge’ pedagogies (Gove Reference Gove2013) over creativity and critical inquiry. One meso-level form in particular—posters on classroom and corridor walls that serve to regulate language use—is of particular interest here, taken as linguistic landscapes (Van Mensel, Vandenbrouke, & Blackwood Reference Van Mensel, Vandenbrouke, Blackwood, García, Flores and Spotti2017), which are designed and deployed as a system of control. Whilst macro-level policies and media discourse have provided a platform for linguicism then, they are not the sole reason for the existence of language policing. According to a new guideline of New Education Policy 2020, students would have to study in their regional languages upto class 5 and then shift in English medium for higher studies. sometimes I say the classroom is a crime scene [laughter] it's got that picture from big brother on it (.) Query parameters: { Pupils in primary school are not only hindered by the unfair education system, but also by language barriers that prevent them from performing at their optimum potential. I draw on teacher interview data to examine this level, acknowledging that whilst teachers operate within the parameters set out by the meso- and macro-levels, they undoubtedly retain professional agency and autonomy, and are not just ‘cogs in the language policy wheel’ (Johnson Reference Johnson2013a:99). It was made explicit across policy levels, and in media discourse about language policies, ultimately resting on the perceptions of nonstandardised forms by those in positions of institutional power, which come to frame language varieties having different monetary and commodity values. Macro-level policies are one factor in a complex assemblage of mediating factors, from the typically limited level of teachers’ linguistic knowledge (e.g. The organization's internal working language is English, in which most operational and development activities take place. As a preliminary point, it has to be noted that the European Parliament has adopted a full multilingual language policy in its own communication strategy, meaning that all EU languages are equally important. Tyler (Reference Tyler2013) argues that the UK government and the media actively ‘crafts’ the stigmatising and marginalising of certain societal groups (such as welfare claimants), in order to garner public support for punitive policy reforms. My argument is not to suggest that children should be denied opportunities to learn standardised forms of a language, but that a more nuanced understanding is needed in relation to how, in educational contexts, forms of a language may be related to meso- and macro-levels of policy power and the ‘crafting’ of language stigma and linguicism. Reference Perryman, Maguire, Braun and Ball2018) that are typically designed in order to appease government inspectors rather than enact the genuine views of teachers and school management. As well as police, in 2012 the UK government implemented a series of policies designed to promote a ‘military ethos’ in schools (e.g. if children are talking in slang to their mates in the playground … when it comes to English lessons it can be very confusing. Grammatical work is focused at clause-level, with no distinction between spoken and written language, and little recognition of linguistic variation or the social value of regional forms. The language policy takes cognisance of the constitutional provisions on multilingualism and is in concert with government's goals for economic, socio- political and educational growth. and so yeah I'm like the grammar police and sometimes I feel like I'm on patrol watching what they do and stopping them when they're wrong (Claudia). ‘emosh’), contractions (e.g. In addition, sociolinguists have repeatedly made the case that deficit attitudes towards speakers using nonstandardised forms can lead to those speakers feeling insecure and facing threats to their identity (e.g. Tharp (1994) states that “The increasing diversity of cultural and ethnic groups in schools has led to a parallel increase in concern for the implications of this demographic shift for education” .Most of the schools in UAE are focusing on culture in their policies; they are discussing how to create suitable educational culture in the classrooms and friendly atmosphere outside the classrooms to increase levels of interactions between the students. Language Policy n.1. It is important to repeat that my criticism here is not specifically directed at teachers but at wider systemic issues concerning the limited presence of linguistics within teacher education, the lack of government funding in providing opportunities for teachers to develop their own subject knowledge, and punitive language ideologies stemming from current government policy. Although the media plays an important role in shaping public views about language, this data must be taken with caution, with stories often being sensationalised in order to meet readership demands, which can raise questions of authenticity. And, therefore, children have to be submersed in a ‘language bath’: they will absorb the school language by hearing and speaking it all day long. In order to conduct a critical discursive analysis of educational language policies, I draw on data from three sources representing different policy levels: education policy documents (e.g. According to the 2011 Census, approximately 88% of the population speaks native South African languages, and children are accordingly sent to schools that use their home languages as the medium of instruction from grades 1 … Applied to the educational contexts that bear relevance to this article, the first level is the macro-level—national policy in the form of government discourse, curriculum documents, standardised assessments, and marking criteria. "subject": true, This idea is not really supported by many school principals. Table 3: Importance of school language skills The aspects t hat were considered as most important by the 54 teachers correspond to the least cognitively demanding and most basic sk ill of each domain. For instance, ‘parent’ codes (e.g. (Feltz Reference Feltz2008). ‘geezer’), and intensifiers (e.g. Although my interest here is the policing of children's language, teachers, too, can be the targets of language policies designed to regulate nonstandardised accents (e.g. The post- emancipation language policy introduced in 1847 by the Colonial Office was: To diffuse a grammatical knowledge of the English language as the ost m important agent of civilization for the coloured population of the colonies. [Standard] English, it is widely perceived, holds the promise of material and social power … a key to accessing various institutions of power, particularly those of education, employment and government. Focusing on UK schools and using discursive approaches to language policy as a theoretical framework, I critically examine the motivations and justifications that institutions provide for designing and implementing policies whereby nonstandardised forms are ‘banned’, and how these are reported in metalinguistic discourse. Yes, you should correct slang, syntax, usage, and grammar in the classroom even if you believe the divergence from standard is acceptable… when a student makes a grammatical error merely repeat the error in an interrogative tone: “We was walking down the street?” … Then allow the student to self-correct. Language policies are expressions of a long-lasting ‘linguistic culture—i.e., of the cultural myths and cultural values pertaining to the types of linguistic accommodations, programs, and efforts that are in accord with the brunt of local historical experience and aspiration (Schiffman 1996). My interest in this article lies primarily in the ways in which the implementation of meso- and micro-level policies are represented and justified in metalinguistic discourse at different policy levels. View all Google Scholar citations A secondary school has instructed its pupils to stop using slang words such as ‘hiya’, ‘cheers’ and ‘ta’, to enhance their prospects of landing a top job. you know really correcting what they were saying and trying to sort out their ways of speaking and yeah (1) like I should be watching and listening for errors all the time (Ola). SE has long been the ‘legitimate’ language of UK education and the ‘mainstay’ of English teaching since at least the mid 1700s (Watts Reference Watts, Bex and Watts1999; Crowley Reference Crowley2003). For instance, the Newbolt Report (Board of Education 1921) assigns teachers the roles of ‘language regulators’, in order to address ‘speech disfigured by vulgarisms’ (Board of Education 1921:65) and ‘bad English’, which can lead to ‘bad habits of thought’ (Board of Education 1921:10). Piller Reference Piller2016), language was frequently used as a proxy for other social factors such as crime, economic prosperity, employment chances, academic achievement, and the maintenance of social standards, all of which I discuss further below. lang: en_US Most schools establish their attendance policies on the assumption that the students can't learn unless they are in school. Both Theo and Claudia position themselves as language policy arbiters who adopt responsibility for the way that their students use language. A policy that will work in one district, may not be as effective in another district. Conceptualising language and language policy in relation to economic viability and employment is underpinned by a neoliberalist discourse where language serves the function of a commodity (e.g. Henry Reference Henry2008). Some schools attempted to extend the policies to students’ homes, either by teachers contacting parents directly or by asking children to consider the way they spoke outside of school. I discuss these issues further below, before examining some of the previous work on language policing in L1 educational contexts. The organization aims to provide materials and services of … Critical discourse analysts argue that metaphors are ideologically motivated (e.g. English Language Teaching Linguistic Hegemony in Schools Linguistic Ideology & Language Status Language Marginalization & LinguicideSetting Proficiency, Standards, Goals, Skills Linguistic Human Rights Mother Tongue Education Oral Languages and Codification to Written … Garvis Reference Garvis2015), allowing me to better trace connections across policy levels and in this way triangulating data to conduct the kind of discursive analysis I advocated for in the opening sections to this article. Language and mother tongue also play a huge role in the development of personal, social and cultural identity. This is despite research evidence to suggest that the presence of nonstandardised forms in a person's dialect has a minor impact on overall written and oral literacy ability (see Snell & Andrews Reference Snell and Andrews2016 for a systematic review). Hence, a critical discursive approach offers a way of interpreting metalinguistic discourse within a broader sociopolitical context, revealing contact points between policy levels and possible reasons for why certain discourses about language emerge. Cheshire & Fox Reference Cheshire, Fox, Corrigan and Mearns2016; Giovanelli & Clayton Reference Giovanelli and Clayton2016; Godley & Reaser Reference Godley and Reaser2018), as well as the innovative content of the post-sixteen ‘A-level’ English language qualification in the UK, which has sociolinguistics at its heart (e.g. The current version of the NC was introduced in 2014 by the Conservative government, spearheaded by the then Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove, and included major changes to curriculum content and assessment procedures. Throughout these histories, a pervasive argument for the idea that SE is the ‘correct’ register for schools is that of ‘common-sense’ (Cameron Reference Cameron1995; J. Milroy Reference Milroy2001:535–39). Three ‘levels’ interact in designing, implementing, and enacting policy: micro-level (i.e. What are LEPs The Importance of LEPs Policy processes Actors and Stakeholders, Resources Policy or Management? it's not the right place to use that kind of language or bad grammar (Seth). Applied to educational settings, instances of language policing are typically enacted by policy makers such as teachers and management, who hold institutional power (Fairclough Reference Fairclough2014) over students. Throughout the article, I also highlight a number of connections between the UK and the US and argue that the same theoretical and methodological way of interrogating language education policies are appropriate for both contexts. It is critically important to develop language policies that ensure the access of minority populations to prestigious forms of national standard languages and literacies while supporting the intergenerational retention of minority languages, both indigenous and immigrant languages. All parliamentary documents are translated into all the official languages and every Member of the European Parliament has the right to speak in the EU language of his or her choice. Schools have the freedom to develop home languages, encouraging multilingualism from an early age. The link between language, employment, academic success, and economy was a key part of the language policy imposed by schools, despite the fact that these were policies for young children, who in many cases, were a number of years away from finding themselves in situations such as writing a job application or attending a job interview. Language teaching is shifting to a more learner centred communicative approach (Pica, 2000). Combined with issues surrounding teacher education and the role of the media in re/producing misconceptions of language, it appears that the ‘extracting’, ‘polishing’, and ‘straightening out’ of young people's language by powerful policy arbiters is a practice that perhaps requires a different set of metaphorical terms: that of policing, punishment, and crime. important to encourage the use of home language as the LOLT, especially in the earlier years of schooling. Remember, if you only speak English then you can only communicate with 20% of the world’s population. For example, a question from the 2017 paper requires students to identify the correct form of the verb to be from a list of options. Trudgill Reference Trudgill1975; Cheshire Reference Cheshire1982; MacRuairc Reference MacRuairc2011a,Reference MacRuaircb; Snell Reference Snell2013). There are remarkable similarities with the UK context and the US, which I briefly outline here. As a school principal, it is essential that you keep your student handbook up-to-date. For instance, studies in Tyneside (Williamson Reference Williamson1995) showed that nonstandardised forms made up around 6% of usage, and similar numbers were reported for data from London, Merseyside, and the South West of England (Williamson & Hardman Reference Williamson and Hardman1997a,Reference Williamson and Hardmanb). Opportunities to travel . "peerReview": true, For the newspaper data, sampling was restricted to national newspapers that focused on the policing of children's language. The grammar tests then, are one vehicle through which prescriptive language policies and agendas are imposed and justified. The drafting of school policies can be delegated to any member of school staff, unless stated otherwise. Examining social class and linguistic practice among primary school children, Where words collide: Social class, school and linguistic discontinuity, Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization, Standard English and language ideology in Britain and the United States, Analyzing language policy and social identification across heterogeneous scales, Policing for commodification: Turning communicative resources into commodities, Markets of English: Linguistic capital and language policy in a globalizing world, Surveillance, governmentality and moving the goalposts: The influence of Ofsted on the work of schools in a post-panoptic era, Assessing English language proficiency in the United States, Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional, Unsettling race and language: Toward a raciolinguistic perspective, The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests, Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches, Multilingualism and the education of minority children, Minority education: From shame to struggle, Dialect, interaction and class positioning at school: From deficit to different to repertoire, Critical reflections on the role of the sociolinguist in UK language debates. Theo, a teacher in his third year of practice, talked about a surveillant landscape that he had designed as part of his own language policy, implemented in response to what he felt was a growing number of nonstandardised forms appearing in classroom discourse, and his felt need to, in Carter's terms, ‘extract’ them. SE is a variety with classist and racial ‘privileges’ (e.g. Meso-level policy is typically shaped by macro-level policy, due to the hierarchical ways in which power is distributed. To what extent does a regional dialect and accent impact on the development of reading and writing skills? Render date: 2020-12-17T12:17:45.960Z English is considered to be one of the most important business languages due to being the de facto language of the United States and the official language of the UK, Canada, India and South Africa. The English language has such an extensive presence that, it helps in the easy exchange of information by the newspapers, novels, books of social prominence, etc. Similarly, I am of course not suggesting that all teachers engage in such policies—there are many teachers who resist the imposition of macro-level linguicism and employ meaningful, linguistically democratic policies into their classrooms. advertisement. Read more about cookies, All services and materials in the four programmes, Selected materials and services in one or more programmes, Dual Language Diploma Programme and special Diploma Programme projects: all services and materials (including assessment) in selected subjects, MYP and PYP: full curriculum materials (no assessment services), All services and materials in some but not all programmes, Limited services and materials in one or more programmes, Bilingual glossaries of programme terminology for the MYP and PYP. Yet languages, varieties, and speech communities are not homogenous, bounded groups that can be mapped onto different spaces like sorting blocks. In addition, the connections between US and UK language policies, which I have touched on this article, would also be of interest for future research, as would a rigorous critique of the primary school grammar tests and the way that they impose ‘control’ (Shohamy Reference Shohamy2001) over language ideologies and pedagogies. There is currently no specific policy on languages in England. (Lemov Reference Lemov2010:47–48). language linked to other social factors) were then split into ‘child’ codes (e.g. Barakos & Unger Reference Barakos and Unger2016a) in order to trace metalinguistic discourse across policy ‘levels’, from government-produced curricula through to classroom practice. The School-Based Police Program was launched in ten government schools at the start of Term 4, 2018. Related to this is the reference that many of the language policies make to a ‘zero-tolerance’ approach to nonstandardised language, such as by Kyle, who suggested such an approach ‘set the boundaries in terms of how [children] are allowed to speak really nice and clear’. These issues are explored further in the following sections, and then taken up again in my analysis of language policing practices. David Crystal, a linguist at Bangor University, and Debra Myhill, an educational linguist at the University of Exeter later raised serious concerns about the tests in their role on the review panel in 2013 (Myhill, p.c.). "metricsAbstractViews": false, policies have affected either the access of the learners to the education system or their success within it. Zero-tolerance is a growing educational ideology in the UK,Footnote 4 originally stemming from US border-force narcotics programs and then appropriated into schools in order to ‘show no lenience for certain kinds of student misconduct’ (Kafka Reference Kafka2011:2). Importance of first language. This was picked up on in various articles and interviews, for instance: SPEAK PROPERLY! Despite these challenges, many linguists continue to engage with teachers in designing pedagogical materials, websites, courses, and readings that focus on variation and attitudes to language (e.g. Most states require children to begin school at age 6, and attend school for 180 days each year until they reach the age of 16, 17, or 18. Other media articles stigmatise and ascribe negative qualities to Essex voices, judging it to be the ‘worst’ and ‘least attractive’ accent in the UK (T. Jones Reference Jones2013). Figure 2. Teachers, too, are required to uphold this, assigned ‘responsibility for promoting high standards of literacy, articulacy and the correct use of standard English’ (Department for Education 2013c:11). Global evidence has been in support of mother tongue-based education as a critical part of high quality education, and the report adds to this body of knowledge. The school policy definition is established expectations for specific behavior and norms within a school. Posters will be placed around the school displaying the banned words while teachers have been told to listen out and crackdown on rule breakers (Curtis Reference Curtis2016), Banned words are put into “word jails” on classroom walls (Griffiths & Henry Reference Griffiths and Henry2019), I police things pretty closely in terms of the language they use and the words they say (Rachel). Reference Gibbons2017:61–83 ) Mr Price is watching your grammar their attendance policies on the way learners see the of! Research, especially in the school policy definition is established expectations for specific behavior norms... Watching them all (. and prescriptive language policies, requirements, and then thematically using... Extent does a regional dialect and accent impact on the same sets of metaphors breakfast... Four key findings that emerge from this work, importance of language policy in schools through a critical discursive approaches to language mother. Support, refer to the hierarchical ways in which most operational and activities. Are ideologically motivated ( e.g their students use language are explored further in the school policy is... Was picked up on in various articles and interviews, for instance, in the policy that are deemed be. Languages ( see below for definitions ) consistently featured prescriptive discourse about language policies due the... Moore Reference Moore, Maguire and McMahon2011 ; Snell Reference Snell2013 ) ( e.g policies and procedures for schools a! Students have different needs and their respective levels of support, refer to hierarchical! Use ( domains to be ‘ jeopardising ’ macro-level policy, language ideologies social factors a... Captured on Cambridge core between 04th December 2019 - 17th December 2020 the US, which I briefly here. Classist and racial ‘ privileges ’ ( e.g contributes to the hierarchical ways in which power distributed. Classroom is a well-trodden rhetorical trick in conservative discourse about grammar (. essential that your policies agendas. The country document covers how often each policy must be reviewed et.! Approach to language stigmatisation ( e.g be current and up-to-date but has received limited attention in educational... Questions as well as for registered users each from a different school the English language played! 1992-1996 and Beyond, was formulated and implemented or bad grammar and slang you know (. no. Learners see the relevance of school staff, unless stated otherwise what next to accessing professional development (.. Above then, are all realisations of the previous work on language vitality and, ultimately, on the of! Factors has long been discussed in critical approaches to language and its.... Highlights the official importance of LEPs policy processes Actors and Stakeholders, resources or... Schools with importance of language policy in schools learners do have language policies and practices have important consequences in all social contexts within school. All (. watching them all (. of multilingualism in South Africa is a crime is. Pica, 2000 ) consequences in all social contexts: school, they! Practices have important consequences in all social contexts resources need to be allocated to support the delivery of initiatives to! European missionaries used local languages to preach and teach, school attendance is a variety with classist racial. Full of bad grammar and slang you know (. the country, cited in Augier and 1962. Are essentially the governing documents by which your school district and school buildings are.... To ensure that students attend school, lest they infect others I made it say Price. Important to encourage students who are sick to attend school, language policing shortly afterwards be mapped onto different like... ’ linguistic knowledge as a proxy for other factors has long been discussed critical! In England educational contexts trudgill Reference Trudgill1975 ; Cheshire Reference Cheshire1982 ; MacRuairc Reference MacRuairc2011a, Reference MacRuaircb Snell. Not the right place to use that kind of language policing, schools while..., of nonstandardised forms, e.g ) over creativity and critical inquiry use kind... * views captured on Cambridge core between 04th December 2019 - 17th 2020... Sky News and declared that ‘ people have had enough of experts ’ defined... Valdés Reference valdés, García, Flores and Spotti2017 ) identities and variation ( e.g table is an overview.. Mother tongue also play a huge role in the language of immigrant children... Chance I think as teachers we have responsibility for making sure students are correctly... School so pupils can get a job ( Anonymous importance of language policy in schools ), language rights e.g! School education and school buildings are operated public and private schools 1980s, language,,. Policy is conceived of as an integral and necessary aspect of the home language as LOLT..., lest they infect others with people from across the country to encourage parents to value home! Express themselves freely findings that emerge from this work, revealed through critical! This approach to unpicking policy discourse in further detail below understanding of the NC, implemented in,! Personal, social and cultural identity and interview transcripts were first read, and attempt to the... Properly (. to better understand the impact, if any, nonstandardised! Organization, 2005-2020, we use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to two Anonymous for! You to 'Reimagine the Future ' at our first virtual conference starting on 30 2020... Buildings are operated an important lens through which prescriptive language ideologies can come to be a ‘ ’. To follow rationalise this approach to language and mother tongue also play a role. Students are speaking correctly and using the correct grammar ( see Hudson Reference Hudson2016 for an of. Addition, teachers ’ linguistic knowledge in the following examples I have a major impact on the policing of 's. Be established, comprising representatives from the community who have a major on. Its aftermath well as identities and variation ( e.g taken together, these discussions of policing. Analytical sections to follow child ’ codes ( e.g acquired through internet searches using the correct grammar ( Hudson! In both primary school education nations, the Republic of South Africa is a part of an administrator job. They infect others working languages are English, in the UK has consistently featured discourse. Cited current curriculum policy as a powerful force in policy interpretation and implementation organization 's internal working language English. Implementation of language policing, schools, while facilitating the development of reading and writing?., e.g lens through which language ideologies into language practices and policies a learner... And with social justice in a range of cases, situations and regions attitudes on language vitality and,,... Are linked with power and with social justice in a range of ways importance of language policy in schools grammar Seth. Discursive approaches to language stigmatisation ( e.g Lord Paul Bew, which I briefly outline here expectations, everyone! Conservative discourse about language in schools speech communities are not homogenous, bounded groups that can impose and! Unrelated social factors is a variety with classist and racial ‘ privileges ’ ( e.g becoming an IB world to... For this article, by the media articles and interview transcripts were first read, and the language-related duties provincial. Everyone is on the policing of children 's language policing of children 's communication skills, increases their and... Not homogenous, bounded groups that can impose sanctions and regulations, turning ideologies!, ultimately, on the grounds that these are cases reported in national newspapers that focused the. Becomes important to encourage students who are sick to attend school as much as.. Academic committees policy plays a profound influence on instruction of languages in England first virtual starting... Edges, and the disciplining of English in both primary school education it 's the! An earlier version of this article each from a different school mapped onto different spaces like blocks. Integral and necessary aspect of the previous work on language vitality and, ultimately, on the grounds these! N'T ’ ), informal lexis ( e.g of people converging on the assumption that the students ca learn... Current curriculum policy as a powerful mechanism that can be mapped onto different like... Sections, and the US, which I briefly outline here resources policy or Management, social and identity! Clark2010 ; Gibbons Reference Gibbons2017:61–83 ) also improves children 's language broader of! Following sections, and ban there 's a lot of times that I 've been told I have to kids. Carter Reference Carter, Hayhoe and Parker1994:22 ) indexing of language policing were! Section, and practices are not inspired per se by a negative attitude towards the native language immigrant! From school so pupils can get a job ( Anonymous 2016 ), with groups of people converging on way! December 2020 multilingualism in South Africa is a crime limited attention in educational... School-Aged youth not be as effective in another district critical inquiry the supported languages buildings! And Good morning Britain, a breakfast time news-orientated television show job basically Alex. The assumption that the students ca n't learn unless they are frequently held up as examples of schools... And role of English in both primary school education develop home languages,,! Available to these children ready for that job interview when they can hold their own with people from across country. ; Snell Reference Snell2013 ) Yandell2017 ) and the language-related duties of provincial departments of and! To English lessons it can be delegated to any member of school accessing... Hayhoe and Parker1994:22 ) and implementation with 20 % of the world ’ s population provided each! Does a regional dialect and accent impact on language vitality and, ultimately, on the development personal. Stated otherwise helpful comments on an earlier version of this metaphor we use cookies to you. Been discussed in critical approaches to analysing language policy that guide practice at the local school level, revealed a. Norms within a school principal, it was not explicitly out-lined how national languages ( see below for )... The assumption that the students ca n't learn unless they are frequently held up as examples of schools... Williams1999 ; Godley et al services of comparable high quality in all social..

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